Unravelling the terms ‘health + safety’ (H&S) and ‘occupational health’ (OH)


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The terms ‘occupational health’ (‘OH’) and ‘health + safety’ (H&S) can be confusing. They are both very important but are often mistaken for each other, and both encompass a wide range of activities, which overlap with each other to a certain degree.

The mere mention of H&S is enough to make some people groan as they conjure up images of over-zealous health and safety inspectors and overly-stringent health and safety rules. In reality, however, H&S is a vitally-important discipline defined by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) as “preventing people from being harmed by work or becoming ill by taking the right precautions and providing a satisfactory working environment”.

OH could be described as “the promotion and maintenance of physical and mental well-being of all staff and the prevention of ill health”. It is about the effects of work on a person’s health and ensuring that employees are fit for the work they do.

H&S practices may appear to be pro-active (preventing risk) and OH practices re-active (dealing with employee health issues once they occur). However, there is significant scope within OH to monitor employee health and prevent illness before it occurs.

The differences…

One way of considering the difference between H&S and OH might be to consider the difference between accidents and illnesses. For example, some work practices may put employees at risk and therefore need to be tightly controlled (e.g. production lines, organisations that require staff to work with heavy machinery, toxic substances, etc.). These safety aspects would be controlled by health and safety legislation. Similarly, particular types of work can put employees’ health at risk (e.g. lead poisoning or noise-induced hearing loss, stress or musculoskeletal disorders, etc.). The process of trying to prevent ill health, monitoring employee ill health and helping employees stay at work or return to work during/after illness might fall under the remit of a person involved in the provision of OH services.

The similarities…

The cross-over between the two disciplines is present in the areas of ‘risk assessment’ (ensuring that processes and policies are put in place to reduce work-related ill health). If the aim of H&S is to make working environments as safe and risk-free as possible, then risk assessment is vital. The same goes for OH: as OH sets out to check prior to exposure that employees are satisfactorily assessed for fitness to do their allocated jobs, to ensure that employees do not carry out tasks that they are unable to do due to a health issue, and to monitor the health of staff who at risk of developing occupational disease due to their work (health surveillance), then risk assessment is vital on all counts. One other notable similarity between the two disciplines is that they both require commitment and involvement from both employers and employees.

It is often the case that more attention is given to health + safety issues in the workplace because these are easier to quantify and manage than OH issues. For example, it is easier to work out what has caused an accident at work than to assess whether an employee’s on-going health problems have been caused by, or exacerbated by, the working environment.

Any organisation whose employees are suffering from health issues that are affecting their ability to do their jobs would benefit from OH guidance. The Health for Work Adviceline offers free, professional advice on employee health issues with the aim of reducing sickness absence and keeping people and organisations healthy and productive. Visit the website or call Freephone 0800 0 77 88 44 for more information.

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3 Responses to Unravelling the terms ‘health + safety’ (H&S) and ‘occupational health’ (OH)

  1. I have had a look at this explanation (at http://www.health4work.nhs.uk/blog/2012/01/the-terms-health-safety-and-occupational-health-oh/) about the differences between health and safety and OH. I’m not sure I agree with it entirely . From a broad and holistic standpoint OH is part of health safety and well-being – as is occupational hygiene which makes a major contribution but is not really mentioned. This sort of explanation seems like doctors trying to differentiate themselves from the lower (safety) orders. The reference to ‘overzealous inspectors’ does not help.

    Health and safety professionals (such as Chartered Members of IOSH) are not concerned only with accidents but play a big part in controlling risks to health. The cynic might say that most OH practice deals with fitness for work and few OH professionals get out on the shop floor and participate in health risk assessments. I think the balance of this piece needs re-adjusting.

  2. renieshaw says:

    Thanks for your feedback. The aim of this blog was certainly not to try to make occupational health (OH) out to be in any way ‘superior’ to health and safety and it is unfortunate if it could be interpreted in this way.

    The blog was intended to give some idea of how to differentiate between the two disciplines as people aren’t always quite sure whether it’s ‘health and safety’ or ‘OH’ guidance they are after – I had hoped to demonstrate that both disciplines are important but that there are certain differences (and notable similarities) between them.

  3. Anthea Page says:

    I would concur with Roger Bibbings that your differentiation between OH and OSH has been to the detriment (ie exclusion) of Occupational Hygiene which is the scientific and practical discipline that protects people against the wide range of health risks that can arise from exposures at work. It focuses on the recognition of hazards, assessment of exposure, and control of risks to health, where science and engineering meet the human element of work. As was pointed out in the original blog, OH is usually associated with the curative element of workplace health problems/solutions and can usually be linked to the welfare and wellbeing agenda, to do with keeping people in work and getting people back to work. OSH and Occupational Hygiene are about prevention, with Occupational Hygiene much more associated with risks to health from exposures and long latency diseases.