Ensuring safe working conditions during the winter

Snowy scene - bird and treeAs winter sets in employers need to be aware that workers who are exposed to cold, wet or icy conditions may be at risk of sustaining injuries or becoming ill. In the more mild regions of the UK people aren’t used to sudden drops in temperature and many people struggle to cope when they are faced with bouts of wintery conditions.

Last year’s winter was exceptionally stormy with persistent heavy rainfall and above average temperatures. In fact, it was the wettest winter since 1910, which posed a particular set of challenges. In contrast, weather forecasters are predicting that this year’s winter may well be colder and drier than average with much more in the way of snow and frosts.

Slips on ice and snow are obvious risks during freezing weather conditions although there are particular illnesses that are associated with cold conditions including hypothermia, frostbite and chilblains. Employers have a duty to ensure they have done all that is reasonably practicable to prevent employees having accidents or becoming ill due to their work. Different considerations about working conditions will be necessary depending on the type of work done by employees:

  • Office-based workers: Do employees really need to be in the workplace, or could they work from home during wintery conditions? Is the office temperature at least 16°C or does additional heating need to be supplied?
  • Outdoor workers: Employees working outside must be provided with adequate protective clothing to ensure that they remain warm and safe (e.g. hats, gloves, safety boots and high-visibility padded jackets). Risks identified in the initial risk assessment may pose even more danger in bad weather conditions (e.g. the risk of slipping whilst climbing ladders or working at heights).
  • Company drivers: Ideally employees should avoid driving in dangerous weather conditions unless the journey is absolutely necessary (according to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) up to a third of all road traffic accidents involve somebody who is at work at the time). Employers should keep abreast with the latest weather reports and base decisions on whether or not to allow company drivers to set off on journeys on risk assessments.

It’s important to have bad weather policies in place to prepare for potential winter-related issues, to ramp up the provision of wellbeing support to help prevent the spread of winter colds and flu, and to support those who are suffering from stress, which can be made worse during periods of bad weather and the run-up to Christmas. For more information on working in cold weather conditions, see our guide on working in extremes of temperature.

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Fit for Work – health and work advice, health assessments and return to work plans

DoctorSickness absence is a major problem for the UK economy – 131 million days were lost due to sickness absences in the UK in 2013[i]. It incurs significant costs for employers (e.g. the cost of temporary cover, lost productivity, etc.) and individuals (e.g. loss of earnings). Furthermore, getting back to work after an extended, involuntary period of absence can be extremely hard, which is why keeping periods of absence as short as possible is in the interests of all.

The main causes of sickness absence in the UK are musculoskeletal disorders (e.g. back and neck pains), minor illnesses, and stress, anxiety and depression. In fact, musculoskeletal disorders and mental health issues feature in the top three causes of long-term absences (four weeks or more) too – over 30% of long-term absences are due to musculoskeletal disorders, and over 20% are down to mental ill health.

Given the scale of the problem of long-term sickness, the Government will be launching the advice service element of Fit for Work (formerly referred to as the ‘Health and Work Service’) in England and Wales next month (there will be a phased roll-out of the referral service taking place over the coming months). (The Scottish service will be known as Fit for Work Scotland and will be run by the Scottish Government).

The new service will consist of two key elements:

  1. Health and work advice through telephone and on-line services available to all employers, employees and GPs.
  2. An occupational health assessment for employees on a period of sickness absence lasting four weeks or more.

The overall aims of the service are to facilitate employees’ return to work, help employers to better manage sickness absence in their organisations, and allow GPs to access work-related health support for their patients easily.

By facilitating access to independent and objective advice on issues preventing a sustained return to work, the objective is to reduce the time an employee is off work through sickness.

There will be a phased roll-out of the referral service taking place over a period of months but, in the meantime, you can access expert and impartial advice delivered by our team of occupational health professionals. You can ‘chat online’ to a specialist advisor, ‘email a question’ or browse our ‘library of advice’ on various health and work topics.

[i] Source: Office for National Statistics, ‘Sickness Absence in the Labour Market, February 2014’.]

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Workplace wellness – some ideas

Photo by plumandjello via Flickr, under Creative Commons Licence

Workplace wellness programmes are a set of initiatives set out by organisations with the aim of creating a healthier workforce. They are based on the premise that healthier and happier employees will be more committed and productive, which will benefit organisations greatly in terms of performance, not least due to reductions in costs associated with absenteeism and subsequent lost productivity.

Developing a workplace wellness programme will benefit employees (who will be more healthy and motivated and will feel more valued by the organisations they work for) and employers (through lower rates of absenteeism, higher productivity, increased staff retention, etc.)

A whole host of initiatives could be included in a workplace wellness programme and could include a combination of the following:

  1. Introducing the concept of ‘walking’ meetings instead of sitting at a meeting desk.
  2. Desk exercises and simple stretches whilst at work.
  3. Using the stairs rather than the lift.
  4. Using a printer that is further away.
  5. Walking over to talk to a colleague rather than calling or sending an email.
  6. Using regular breaks in the day for stretching or walking around.
  7. Encouraging regular health check-ups and dental appointments.
  8. Setting up lunch-time keep-fit, pilates or yoga sessions.
  9. Offering the services of visiting physiotherapists, chiropractors, masseurs, etc.
  10. Parking further away from work or getting off the bus a stop earlier.
  11. Standing or walking while on the phone.
  12. Setting Outlook or mobile phone reminders for breaks.
  13. Encouraging staff to bring in fresh fruit as a snack one day a week (e.g. ‘Fruity Fridays’).
  14. Organising sport-related charity events (e.g. a fun run) which would encourage team-building and help staff keep fit.
  15. Providing herbal tea or water fountains as an alternative to fizzy drinks.
  16. Encouraging people to bring water bottles to work. Drinking more water also means more frequent ‘toilet’ breaks, which gets people away from their desks.
  17. Offering shower and changing room facilities for cyclists.
  18. Offering a ‘salary sacrifice’ in exchange for discounted gym membership.

Communicating openly with staff helps create a working culture in which employees feel confident about discussing any work/health issues with their line managers. In addition, encouraging staff to contribute ideas to workplace wellness programmes will help improve staff buy-in and enhance their sense of having some influence over determining the culture of the organisation.

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Stress – the balancing act

file9221299618382Tomorrow (Wednesday 5 November) is National Stress Awareness Day, and this year’s theme is ‘stress: the balancing act’. So many of us have such full lives that it’s often difficult to balance our various commitments such as work, family, hobbies, etc. The aim of this awareness day is to get people to stop and think about what is causing stress in their lives and to do something to make a positive change.

Work is by no means the sole cause of stress, but it’s certainly a major contributor for many, particularly for those who struggle to switch off fully from work. Improvements in technology, such as smart phones and the almost universal availability of internet connections, mean that we are always contactable. Even holidays aren’t sacred for most of us – in order to facilitate a smoother return to work after our break, many of us check emails and phone messages throughout our ‘time off’… just in case.

Those who work full time spend over 20% of their lives in the workplace, so it’s not surprising that stress levels at work have a major impact on a person’s wellbeing. Thankfully, organisations can do a number of things to look after the mental and physical health and wellbeing of staff, yet these don’t have to be major undertakings. Simple changes to employees’ daily routines can make a great difference, for example:

  • making sure employees don’t eat lunch at their desks;
  • organising walks and outdoor activities on the day;
  • reminding employees to turn off their smartphones and not to check emails after they leave work;
  • having healthy snacks available and healthy meals in work canteens;
  • encouraging openness about mental wellbeing.

For more information about marking National Stress Awareness Day in your workplace, see the associated website or Facebook page, or the International Stress Management Association’s Twitter page. Or, for more general guidance on work health issues, including stress and mental health issues, take a look at the Health for Work Adviceline’s blog and knowledge base.

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Pregnancy and work – what support to expect

The Duchess of Cambridge’s second pregnancy, which has seen her afflicted again by a rare and debilitating form of morning sickness (‘hyperemesis gravidarum’), has brought the topic of the potentially incapacitating effects of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy to the forefront of many people’s minds.

Whilst the majority of women are not affected by the same serious condition as the Duchess of Cambridge, nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (oddly known as morning sickness, when symptoms are by no means limited to the morning, for many) is a common problem for many pregnant women.

Whilst most people are aware of the potential problem of nausea and vomiting when pregnant, many employers are still unaware of the profoundly detrimental effect that it can have on a woman’s ability to work. It is estimated that 30% of pregnant women need to take time off work due to nausea and vomiting symptoms.

So, what protection is afforded to pregnant women in the workplace? The rights of pregnant women in the workplace are protected under the Equality Act 2010 (Section 18) and it is unlawful for an employer to treat a woman unfavourably because of her pregnancy or an illness relating to her pregnancy.

It is advisable for employers to conduct open and frank discussion with pregnant employees from the very beginning. Rest is essential for women suffering from pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting, so some adjustments to working hours or roles may be advisable. Where potential risks exist in the workplace, a risk assessment should be undertaken to ensure the safety of the mother and unborn child (HSE ‘New and Expectant Mothers at Work’ guidance). And, if a woman has been off work, a phased return to work might be advisable until she is feeling stronger again.

For more information about pregnancy and work, and to find out what pregnant employees can expect in terms of support, see the guide on the Health for Work Adviceline knowledge base (‘new and expectant mothers at work’). Or, for information on other work-health related issues, take a look at the Health for Work Adviceline blog.

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Fit for Work to tackle long-term absence through advice and occupational health assessments

Photo by Alex Proimos via Flickr, under Creative Commons Licence

Photo by Alex Proimos via Flickr, under Creative Commons Licence

It’s been announced that Fit for Work will be launched by the Government later this year to provide health and work advice and an occupational health assessment to employees, employers and GPs in England and Wales to help people return to or stay in work after an illness. A number of names have been suggested for the service during its ongoing development, including:

The renaming to Fit for Work is based on the need for the name to more accurately reflect the nature and impact of the service.

Long-term sickness absence is a considerable drain on the economy and it’s generally accepted that work is essential to health, wellbeing and self-esteem – being off work for extended periods causes a plethora of problems, including mental health issues, social isolation and difficulty returning to work.

A significant number of people meet the criteria of being employed and on a four-week period of absence in England and Wales – according to the Office for National Statistics[1] (ONS), approximately 815,000 people in England are registered as being on long-term sickness absence (four weeks of more) in England [1.54% of the population], compared to 50,000 in Wales [1.71% of population].

According to Lord Freud, Minister for Welfare Reform:

“Being in work is good for people’s wellbeing and can help them to recover. Fit for Work will help employers and their staff to manage sickness absence and aid the return-to-work process and GPs will play a vital role in referring patients they think will benefit from it. This research will build on the learning from the pilot to help us understand how GPs will use this service and how we can support them in the future.

“Fit for Work is a result of the independent review of sickness absence and the government response which accepted the recommendation to introduce an independent assessment service.”

There will be a phased roll-out of the referral service taking place over a period of months, but visitors to the site can access expert and impartial advice delivered by occupational health professionals from December, in the form of ‘live chat‘, ‘ask a question‘ and a library of guidance in the searchable ‘advice hub‘.

[1] Office for National Statistics Annual Survey (February 2014).

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Stoptober – kick the smoking habit

Photo by weegeebored via Flickr, under Creative Commons Licence

Photo by weegeebored via Flickr, under Creative Commons Licence

During October 2014, thousands of people across England are taking part in Stoptober, a 28-day challenge to stop smoking, which leads smokers through a detailed step-by-step programme to help them achieve their aim of quitting smoking for good. Giving up for this period of time can have very real benefits – it has been calculated that smokers who quit for 28 days are five times more likely to stay smoke-free in the long-term.

A blog from 2013 on the Health for Work Adviceline website discussed the correlation between smoking and sickness absence. Research carried out by the UK Centre for Tobacco Control Studies (based at The University of Nottingham) found that current smokers are 33% more likely to miss work than non-smokers and were absent for an average of 2.7 extra days per year. This offers a very tangible incentive for organisations to back the Stoptober campaign to encourage their staff to quit smoking.

So what support will be offered to those participating in Stoptober? They will receive:

  •  an interactive app for iPhone and Android smart phones;
  • a free Stoptober pack containing resources to help people get through the 28 days;
  • a 28-day stop smoking text message support programme to keep people motivated;
  • daily emails with tips and advice;
  • support via the Smokefree Facebook page.

Because of the negative impact of smoking not only on workers’ health but, by extension, on the ability of an organisation to remain productive, employers would be well advised to encourage staff to break the habit. Resources are available for organisations that want to promote the Stoptober programme to workers (see the ‘Smokefree resource centre’).

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Chief Medical Officer: More must be done to help those with mental illness to stay in work


Photo by Stefano Corso via Flickr, under Creative Commons Licence

Photo by Stefano Corso via Flickr, under Creative Commons Licence

The Chief Medical Officer’s (CMO) annual report focusing on the mental health of the nation, which was published on 9 September 2014, has made 14 recommendations to improve public mental health services. Specifically, the report makes a number of recommendations relating to mental ill health and work.

70 million working days were lost to mental illness last year at a cost of £70-100 billion cost to the economy. In light of this, more needs to be done to help people with mental illness stay in work. The number of working days lost to stress, depression and anxiety has increased by 24% since 2009 and the number of working days lost to serious mental illness has doubled.

The CMO has called for NICE to analyse the cost benefit of fast-tracking access to treatment for working people who may fall out of work due to mental illness on the basis that rapid access to treatment could improve people’s chances of staying in work. It also recommends simple changes to help people with mental illness stay in work by offering flexible working hours. Where staff are off work, employers are urged to make early and regular contact with them in order to make it easier for them to return to work.

Mental health is just as important as physical health, so mental health services need to be valued and the extent of mental illness and the effect it has on sufferers and the people close to them needs to be acknowledged. Mental ill health isn’t something that ‘happens to other people’. One in four of us will suffer from some form of mental ill health in any one year, so openness is key.

Visit the Gov.UK website to view the full report. Or for more guidance on mental health and work, see the Health for Work Adviceline knowledge base or blog.

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Cancer and discrimination at work

Photo by Roberto Bouza via Flickr, under Creative Commons Licence

Photo by Roberto Bouza via Flickr, under Creative Commons Licence

A survey carried out by Macmillan Cancer Support/YouGov of 2,142 adults living with cancer has concluded that more people living with cancer are experiencing discrimination at work now than in previous years, despite the introduction of the Equality Act in 2010. Based on the responses of 168 people who had returned to work after treatment (having received treatment within the past five years), the following conclusions could be drawn:

  • 37% said that they ­experienced discrimination compared with just ­23% in 2010.
  • Around10% felt harassed to the point that they felt they could not stay in their job.
  • 8% said their employer failed to make reasonable changes to enable them to do their job.

The respondents also reported other forms of discrimination they were facing, including:

  • not being allowed time off for medical appointments;
  • being passed over for promotion;
  • being abused by their employer or colleagues (e.g. by being given unfair workloads).

Looking after the health of employees is a crucial part of employers’ responsibilities, not only to adhere to legislative requirements but also to ensure that workers remain productive. According to Ciarán Devane, Chief Executive at Macmillan Cancer Support:

“Employers are risking prosecution by flouting their legal responsibility to protect people living with cancer from unfair treatment and stigma at work. There needs to be far more understanding of cancer and how the effects of treatment may impact on people returning to work.”

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Post summer blues

Photo by Lisa Widerberg via Flickr, under Creative Commons Licence

Photo by Lisa Widerberg via Flickr, under Creative Commons Licence

So, the summer holidays are over. Everyone is relaxed and bronzed and ready to resume with the daily grind. Or, perhaps not…

Research by Bupa, which has combined the views of 2,000 UK workers, shows that 44% of respondents face a ‘dramatic’ workload increase during the summer, mainly due to the sheer number of people who go away at the same time in UK companies.

So, how about those who did manage to enjoy a summer break instead of picking up other people’s work? Well, it’s not all roses for them either. According to the research, two in five people (41%) who went on holiday had to put in extra hours in preparation before their departure, and two thirds (61%) were dreading the return to reality as the holidays came to an end. And, unfortunately, many of those who did take a break didn’t feel like they could fully switch off during their holidays. Even when they were away, nearly one in three (32%) worried about being called or emailed and being expected to respond. More than half (55%) returned to find a ‘huge’ backlog of work and hundreds of emails waiting (54%).

Clearly the solution isn’t to put an end to holiday entitlement altogether – we all need a break. But all employers have a legal responsibility to look after the physical and mental health and wellbeing of their staff and, as such, they have a duty to take staff issues seriously and do what they can to reduce the pressure their staff are under. If you need advice on doing this, why not take a look at the guide on stress in the workplace on the Health for Work Adviceline knowledge base? Or, for information on general work health issues, take a look at our blog or website.

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